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Two-Stroke Tuner's Handbook

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Gordon JENNINGS

Edition:

HP Books US, 1 October 1975

ISBN:

0-9126-5641-7

Details:

156 pages, Soft-Back

Buy from:

Amazon (used)

THE Jennings book is a simple masterpiece. He has taken some research that was done and published by Nagao to do with Inlet Tract delivery ratios and without emphasising it Nagao introduced the idea of Port Time-Areas. I am not sure if Nagao really understood the value of that idea and it was a gem. Jennings read it and understood the value. He did his own investigation, and turned a minor suggestion into a real tool. This book is about the single idea of how to use Port Time-Area diagrams. The other material in the book is good filler, but without Port Time-Area diagrams I doubt that Jennings would ever have written this book. Written in 1973 and way ahead of its time this is a must have book. Contents include Fundamentals, Crank Train, Cylinder Heads, Expansion Chambers, Port Timing, Crankcase Pumping, Cylinder Scavenging, Carburation and Ignition.


The Basic Design of Two-Stroke Engines

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Gordon P. BLAIR

Edition:

Society of Automotive Engineers, 1 March 1990

ISBN:

1-5609-1008-9

Details:

672 pages, Hard-Back, 9.2" x 6.5" x 1.5", 2.4 lbs

Buy from:

Amazon (used)

The first of two books by Gordon Blair on the theory of Two-Stroke behaviour. It was written in 1990 before Blair really got hooked on unsteady gas dynamics. Despite its short-comings, I liked this book as it is a good introduction to the real world of Two-Strokes without being massively complicated. For massive complication, see Blair's second book where he dismisses the theory in this book as naive (and this book is ten times more complicated than most on Two-Strokes). In his second book, he goes with unsteady gas dynamics as the basis for a proper theory on how Two-Strokes operate. The written material is more detailed than many people will want and would provide the serious student with at least a decade of thought and experiment if they were to be so inclined. The computer programs are useful, but the code is not very good quality and show significant rats-nest maintenance and seem to be for pre-PC's. The programs were sold separately (for an unrealistically large sum) as compiled BASIC, so you still had to type in the code to make corrections. Contents include Introduction with review of Basic Data and not quite so Basic Data, Gas Flow, Scavenging, Combustion, Computer Modelling, Assistance for Designers, Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions, Reduction of Noise, Computer BASIC Program listings from page 400.


Design and Simulation of Two-Stroke Engines

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Gordon P. BLAIR

Edition:

Society of Automotive Engineers, 1 December 1996

ISBN:

1-5609-1685-0

Details:

700 pages, Hard-Back, 10.5" x 7.5" x 1.5", 3.0 lbs

Buy from:

Amazon

DESIGN and Simulation of Two-Stroke Engines is a must read reference for the student of the internal combustion engine and the expert alike. This follow up to The Basic Design of Two-Stroke Engines begins with a comprehensive introduction which defines the simplest of engine geometry to the thermodynamic terms specific to the two-stroke engine. Chapter 2, a most demanding read, explains in great detail the author's established theory of unsteady, compressible flow through engine ducting. This theory is the foundation of the computer simulation code. This engine modelling software allows for the complete prediction of engine performance from torque to fuel consumption to exhaust emissions. Scavenging and combustion specific to the Two-Stroke engine are dealt with in individual chapters. Chapter 5 describes the structure of the computer model and the required input data. Several real world examples of computer models are given including a relatively low performance chainsaw and a high performance racing motorcycle. As simple and effective as a computer model may sound, the author stresses that the numerical input for the model is impossible to guess correctly. Therefore, Chapter 6 details all of the empirical techniques the author has created as design guidelines. Data generated using these techniques are to be used as initial inputs to the engine simulation. Finally, the remaining two chapters detail research and simulation involving reduction of fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and noise emissions. New information not covered in The Basic Design of Two-Stroke Engines is presented on unsteady gas flow, scavenging flow, two-zone combustion models, computation of intake and exhaust sound pressure levels and discharge coefficients of ports and valves. Contents include Introduction with review of Basic Data and not quite so Basic Data, Gas Flow, Scavenging, Combustion, Computer Modelling, Assistance for Designers, Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions, Reduction of Noise.


Two-Stroke Performance Tuning

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Graham BELL

Edition:

Haynes, 8 September 1999

ISBN:

1-8596-0619-9

Details:

271 pages, Hard-Back

Buy from:

Amazon

A book to have. I regard this book to be one of a pair of non-academic tuning books to own. The other is Jennings and the academic books are Blair and Heywood. While being from the 1980's, Bell's wealth of experience and experimentation really lifts the book. The inclusion of a number of Exhaust shapes together with their power curves is particularly welcome. Excellent primer on understanding the workings of Two-Stroke engines for racing. If you are a novice or beginner then this book is for you. Geared specifically for GP and Kart racers, this Hard-Back treasure has turned out to be a great reference source for questions on the logic and concepts that pertain to tuning a 2-Stroke for maximum performance. Includes many pictures, charts, graphs, comparisons, numbers, formulas, theory, examples and stories. It has an excellent carburation section. It covers more of how to build a tuned motor rather than how to actually tune a motor. Contents include Cylinder Head, Porting, Exhaust, Carburation, Ignition, Bottom End, Lubrication and Gearing.


The High-Performance Two-Stroke Engine

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Dr. John C. DIXON

Edition:

Haynes Publishing, 29 April 2005

ISBN:

1-8442-5045-8

Details:

352 pages, Hard-Back, 9.4" x 6.7" x 0.9", 1.8 lbs

Buy from:

Amazon

THE Two-Stroke engine is widely used for competitions in both motorcycle racing and kart racing, and in very large numbers in model car, boat and aircraft competition. The mechanical simplicity of the Two-Stroke engine gives it tremendous appeal, and makes it a tempting target for tuning operations, but the key to successful design, development and modification is knowledge of the engine's operating principles. This in-depth technical study of Two-Stroke theory and practice is intended to help would-be engine tuners to better understand the engine and the processes within it, and thereby to obtain improved performance.


The Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

John B. HEYWOOD, Eran SHER

Edition:

Society of Automotive Engineers, 1 June 1999

ISBN:

0-7680-0323-7

Details:

451 pages, Hard-Back, 9.8" x 8.5" x 1.0", 1.8 lbs

Buy from:

Amazon

THIS book addresses the Two-Stroke Cycle Internal Combustion Engine, used in compact, lightweight form in everything from motorcycles to chainsaws to outboard motors, and in large sizes for marine propulsion and power generation. It first provides an overview of the principles, characteristics, applications, and history of the Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, followed by descriptions and evaluations of various types of models that have been developed to predict aspects of Two-Stroke Engine operation. As recent and detailed as any book could be, it uses Suzuki, Yamaha, Kawasaki, Rotax and Orbital engines as examples. Seems to give more basic data on research compared with Blair, although Blair has other strengths. There are very good chapters on Gas Exchange Fundamentals and Combustion. Other topic include Intake and Exhaust design, Emission Control, and Scavenging. Scavenging is discussed extensively, 50 pages on experimental methods plus a further 30 pages on mathematical modelling. Lest you think that it is all about motorcycles, the Orbital 3-Cylinder Two-Stroke Supercharged Diesel is featured as often as any. There is useful discussion on how the jet of gas from the Transfer Port is affected as the port is progressively opened by the Piston.


Two-Stroke High Performance Engine Design and Tuning

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Cesare BOSSAGLIA

Edition:

Lodgemark Press, December 1972

ISBN:

0-8507-7028-9

Details:

232 pages, Soft-Back

Buy from:

Amazon (out of print)

NICE book to have on the shelf, more in the practical section along with Jennings than with the theoretical with Blair and Heywood. Plenty of good pictures and advice about building an engine, including truing a Crankshaft and opening up Ports. Material on Carburation and Ignition is the same tired old 1960's stuff that everyone bashed out, but then this is a 1960's book. There is much more emphasis on metallurgy than normal with discussion on piston and ring life and crankshaft balance. Some good photos of Konig engines, which older sidecar fans will remember.


Two-Stroke Power Units

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Philip Edward IRVING

Edition:

Newnes for Temple Press Books, 1967

ISBN:

B-0000-CNPZ-R

Details:

288 pages, Hard-Back

Buy from:

Amazon (out of print)

DISCUSSES all types of Two-Stroke power units, from chainsaws to lawnmowers, from marine to motorcycle. Although some 1960's Yamahas and Suzukis are included, the discussion on Porting is from the 1940's and 1950's. There are some interesting tit-bits but generally quite a dull book enlightened only by some historical details on Adler, DKW, EMC and MZ.


Tuning for Speed

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

Philip Edward IRVING

Edition:

Floyd Clymer, 1967

ISBN:

0-9080-3129-7

Details:

260 pages, Hard-Back

Buy from:

Amazon

THIS was the standard early Bible for all amateur tuners and racers. Originally from 1948 but later updated to include Two-Strokes and Supercharging. There are lots of 'rules of thumb' (which is to be expected as calculators hadn't been invented and adding machines took a lifetime to operate) with data on carburettor sizes and gas flow around poppet valves. Good discussion on pistons and rings, crankshaft balancing, and valve train mechanisms. Most discussions relate to the large single cylinder engines such as the Manx Norton and the AJS 7R. The appendix contains some fuel analysis tables and many formulae. In short, it is a good summary of tuning knowledge that would be useful to anyone getting into Historic or Classic racing.


Motorcycle Tuning - Two-Stroke

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

John ROBINSON

Edition:

Butterworth-Heinemann, 22 December 1993

ISBN:

0-7506-1806-X

Details:

144 pages, Paper-Back

Buy from:

Amazon

IN this well established book, now brought up to date in a second edition, the Technical Editor of Performance Bikes shows you how to evaluate your engine, how to assess what work you can undertake yourself, and what is best left to a specialist. The great attraction of the Two-Stroke is its enormous potential, contrasted with its appealing simplicity. Armed with little more than a set of files, you can make profound changes to the output power of a two-stroke. But these changes will increase the power only if you know what you are doing. Motorcycle Tuning Two-stroke will therefore guide you through the necessary stages which can enable a stock roadster engine to be turned into a machine capable of winning open-class races, for an outlay which is positively low by racing standards.


Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals

Language:

ENGLISH

Author(s):

John B. HEYWOOD

Edition:

McGraw-Hill Education, 1 July 1989

ISBN:

0-0710-0499-8

Details:

930 pages, Hard-Back, 9.5" x 6.5" x 1.6", 3.1 lbs

Buy from:

Amazon

THIS text, by a leading authority in the field, presents a fundamental and factual development of the science and engineering underlying the design of combustion engines and turbines. An extensive illustration program supports the concepts and theories discussed. The book covers spark-ignited and diesel engines, indirect and direct injected but does not cover recent works on high speed spark-ignition (like Honda VTEC) and turbo-diesel engines, as well the indirect injected stratified combustion engines. While it does not explain to you how to add 2 HP to the engine, it does explain how it all works and why, with theory, numbers and serious real world tests. Contents include Engine Types (spark-ignition and compression-ignition plus variants), Operating Parameters (air fuel ratios, torque, power, efficiency), Thermo-Chemistry, Gas Properties (burned and unburned mixtures), Ideal Engine Model, Gas Exchange (flow through valves, scavenging), Spark Ignition Fuel Metering, Charge Motion (swirl), Spark Ignition Combustion (flame structure, burn, ignition, knock), Compression Ignition Combustion (injection, spray), Pollution Control, Heat Transfer, Friction and Lubrication, Modeling Real Engine Flow, Operating Characteristics.

 

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